Freud used Cremnitz White to achieve both of these characteristics of his paintings of portraits and nudes.
In the mid-1970s, he began using the heavy, granular pigment called cremnitz white, which he has since then reserved for the painting of flesh.I'd never heard of Cremnitz White before I read about this aspect of his technique - so decided to do some research - hence this post.
Tate - Lucian Freud - Technique
In Lucian Freud's pictures, the human skin has almost infinite nuances, from delicate opalescent pink to blood red and the full range of cream, oncre and bistre tones. The discrimnatory power of the painter's eye enables him to go further than what we could ourselves. The nakedness of the bodies is intensified by this, while the roughness, overloading and impasto of the paint itself imbues the skin with an almost tactile reality: skin as fragile and sensitive as an exposed mucous membraneWhat is Cremnitz White?
Lucian Freud: The Studio
Cremnitz White is made of lead carbonate (PbCO3) and is another name for for a particular type of Lead White - much loved of the old masters. Lead white is a warm yellowish white.
It's called Cremnitz White because originally it was made in a town in a town called Cremnitz (by the Hapsburgs) which was formerly known as Kormeriz.
Cremnitz White is a particular version of pure Lead White which gives it a stringy consistency.
It comprises lead carbonate (white lead) and does not include the Zinc Oxide (as Flake White does) which helps it to dry quickly.
Its actual performance and drying time depends on the oil it is mixed with - as explained below in relation to the three different variations of Cremnitz White supplied by Michael Harding. Click the relevant links to get a lot more information.
Who supplies Cremnitz White?
Art materials manufacturers who supply Cremnitz White include:
|Presumably a somewhat historical image|
on the Michael Harding website
given current EU requirements
It looks so much nicer in the tubes though!
- Michael Harding - who has three Cremnitz Whites. My understanding is that Freud used Michael Harding oil paints (but please correct me if you know better)
- Cremnitz White No.1 (Linseed Oil) - describes as PW1. Fast Drying. Slightly Transparent. Lightfastness Excellent. Very Low Oil Content. TOXIC.
Pure Lead Carbonate in a binder which makes a heavy, tactile white with a very robust surface. The ideal white for furrowed, granular or impasto mark-making.
- Cremnitz White No.2 in Walnut Oil described as PW1. Average Drying. Slightly Transparent. Lightfastness Excellent. Very Low Oil Content. TOXIC Walnut oil was used in the fifteenth century by artists such as Van Eyck and as the oil used in paints used by the Impressionists. Its reputation is that it yellows slightly less than the linseed oil.
- Cremnitz White No.3 with driers described as "PW1. Fast Drying. Slightly transparant. Lightfastness Excellent. Very Low Oil content. TOXIC"
- This is how Cremnitz White is supplied by Michael Harding ie you have to use a tool to extract it.
- Old Holland (tins only / cold pressed linseed oil) This thread on the Wet Canvas site suggests it yellows somewhat. - see Cremnitz white turns yellow grey! Will added zinc/titanium keep it white?
- Winsor & Newton - Cremnitz White
- Colour index name: PW1
- Colour index number: 77597
Lead is very toxic and hence precautions have to be taken over its use. It's impossible to buy the dry pigment. The European Union has passed a directive controlling lead paint use - mainly affecting the way it can be handled and sold when used as artists materials and methods for its disposal.
Official sites (UK)
- This is what DEFRA has to say about Lead Paint and the law (it mostly relates to decorating)
- These are The Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002
Art Materials Suppliers
- This is the Kremer Pigmente material safety data sheet for Lead White (pdf file)
- This is the Kremer Pigmente material safety data sheet for Cremnitz White (pdf file)
- This is what Michael Harding has to say about the changes needing to be made to the packaging of Lead White / Cremnitz White
- This is what Winsor & Newton have to say about the toxicity issues
In 1992, lead was banned in the EU in household paints whilst artists' materials manufacturers successfully gained an exemption for artists' colours. The EU has continued to legislate against lead, in a number of categories. From the 31st July 1995 in the UK, lead compounds and products containing lead compounds were reclassified as ‘toxic for reproduction'.For the UK this has the following implications:
i] Products labelled as toxic require child resistant closures if sold to the general public.
ii] Products labelled as toxic require tactile warnings of danger if sold to the general public.
I quote below the precedence taken by Winsor & Newton in early July 1995.The mandatory guidelines affect the retailer/supplier as follows:
- Flake White, Foundation White and Cremnitz White can no longer be supplied in tubes.
- These products are available in 150ml childproof tins.
- Each tin is labelled with mandatory warnings and a further special instructions leaflet is provided in the outer box.
- These products will not be displayed on open shelves. They will either be behind the counter or in a locked display.